Small-scale composting enterprise initiatives : a study of four Jakarta, Indonesia based small-scale composting schemes within the solid waste management framework : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University
Urban development creates its own problems. Solid waste management is one of them. The Municipal Government of Jakarta, Indonesia deemed it urgent to cope with this problem in a more integrated manner that includes 'Reduce, Reuse and Recycle' approaches. Composting is deemed importance in the solid waste management process. It process refused materials into fertilizer and, thus, puts them back in the food production cycle. Moreover, since lack of budget is one of the problems in dealing with waste, the growing interest in community-based and participatory approaches and the growing importance of NGOs role, are seen as more economical. This study focuses on the small-scale community-based composting enterprise schemes for the purpose of generating recommendations for the improvement of the scheme within the framework of solid waste management system in Jakarta. A study case was conducted and semi-structured interviews was employed to address the following questions: what were the benefits of the scheme for the people involved and their local neighbourhoods; what were the roles of NGOs and the municipal government in the scheme; what were the methods and approaches applied and how to ensure projects success? A case study framework was used to examine data collected during the field research in order to understand how the small-scale community-based composting schemes could contribute to the municipal solid waste management system in Jakarta. The results of this study were used to generate options to enable the municipal government to improve the scheme implementation in the future. The research concluded that this scheme is beneficial and could help the municipal government in coping with urban solid waste problems, in terms of decreasing the amount of waste to be landfilled, reducing the costs to be borne by the municipal government, providing a better service to those living in a lower socio-economic areas and creating employment opportunities. In the long run, together with the reduce and recycle approaches, it can be headed toward an urban agriculture, to create a more toward self-sufficient urban area. This research also generated suggestions for privatization and encouragement of people's participation through among others, the provision of simpler an easier credit loans schemes, education regarding the importance of compost and the participation of NGOs and other support institutions, such as universities/academic institutions in the process. Amongst the options is to put these organizations in the front line to disseminate information and conduct training on recycling and composting.